Conduct Disorder in Children

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge

Children with conduct disorder repeatedly violate the personal or property rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules. Conduct disorder has a multifactorial etiology that includes biological, psychosocial and familial factors. Associated features of conduct disorder include an inability to appreciate the importance of others’ welfare and little guilt or remorse about harming others. The etiology of conduct disorder involves an interaction of genetic/constitutional, familial and social factors.

Children with Conduct Disorder often view the world as a hostile and threatening place and they have difficulty maintaining friendships. They often have low self-esteem and low frustration tolerance. Peers and family members become negative and irritated with their misbehavior which leads to a vicious cycle. The literature abounds with studies indicating the comorbid relationships between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Learning Difficulties, Mood Disorders, Depressive symptoms, Anxiety Disorders and Communication Disorders.

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Schizophrenia From a Pychological Point of View

Written and Compiled by Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge

There is always this element of concealed accusation in neurosis, the patient feeling as though he were deprived of his right-that is, of the center of attention – and wanting to fix the responsibility and blame upon someone.

-Alfred Adler

Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality and relates to others. Schizophrenia has an altered perception of reality. Research suggests that schizophrenia may be a developmental disorder resulting from alterations in the usual maturing process of the nervous system. Around 1 in 100 people will develop schizophrenia during their lifetime, and this figure is the same all over the world.
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Psychological Reflections of Vincent Van Gogh’s Art

I know for sure that I have an instinct for colour, and that it will come to me more and more, that painting is in the very marrow of my bones.” – Vincent Van Gogh

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge

Vincent William van Gough a famous Dutch artist whose work often associated with Post-Impressionism and later transformed in to Expressionism. Vincent Van Gogh, was one of the most important predecessors of modern painting. He was an outstanding mostly self taught artist who used color for its “symbolic and expressive values” rather than to reproduce light and literal surroundings. Vincent van Gogh’s artistic work deeply analyses his unconscious mind. The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud viewed art as a privileged form of neurosis where the analyst-critic explores the artwork in order to understand and unearth the vicissitudes of the creator’s psychological motivations. In this context van Gough’s art represent a profound psychological sketch.

Vincent van Gogh was born on March 30, 1853 in Netherlands. Since his childhood Van Gogh had an immense passion for art. Van Gogh’s emotional state highly affected his artistic work. Van Gogh’s most famous works include: Starry Night, Cafe Terrace at Night, Terrasse, Houses At Auvers, Restaurant De La Sirene At Asnieres, Sunflowers, Irises, and several self-portraits, amongst others. Most of his best-known work was created in the last two years of his life.
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Thor Heyerdahl and the Kon-Tiki Expedition

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge

Thor Heyerdahl – a world renowned Norwegian explorer best known for his famous voyage Kon-Tiki expedition practically showed that ancient people could have crossed much greater distances through ocean for trade and cultural exchange. He was convinced that the ocean was only a barrier to man as long as our ancestors were strictly pedestrians, but it became a conveyor for cultural contact and the growth of diversified civilizations from the moment the first sea-going watercraft was invented. Heyerdahl once stated that “man hoisted sail before he saddled a horse. He poled and paddled among rivers and navigated open seas before he traveled on wheels along roads.

Thor Heyerdahl was born in 1914 in Norway. As a young boy he was interested in biology and had a dream to become an explorer and travel to exotic countries far away. During 1937 – 1938 Thor Heyerdahl received a zoological grant to research animal life on the Marquesas Islands. This journey had a great influence on his life. His interest soon turned as to how these Islands and Polynesia in general, had become populated. He was highly interested in marine migration and studied the cultural diffusion which occurred through ancient sea roots.
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Arthur C. Clarke

Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, England. As a boy, he enjoyed stargazing and reading old American science fiction pulp magazines (many of which made their way to the UK in ships with sailors who read them to pass the time). After secondary school and studying at Huish’s Grammar School, Taunton, he was unable to afford a university education and got a job as an auditor in the pensions section of the Board of Education.

During the Second World War, he served in the Royal Air Force as a radar specialist and was involved in the early warning radar defence system which contributed to the RAF’s success during the Battle of Britain. Clarke actually spent most of his service time working on Ground Controlled Approach (GCA) radar, as documented in his semi-autobiographical novel Glide Path. Although GCA did not see much practical use in the war, after several more years of development it was vital to the Berlin Airlift of 1948-1949. He was demobilised with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After the war, he earned a first-class degree in mathematics and physics at King’s College London.
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The Psychopathology of the LTTE suicide bombers

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge M.D.

There’s a hole in the world tonight.
There’s a Cloud of fear and sorrow.
There’s a hole in the world tonight.
Don’t let there be a hole in the world tomorrow.


The LTTE suicide killing is one of the most bizarre forms of political action adopted by its authority via glorification of death and violence. For the LTTE this action is not cleanly a military tactic or reprisal. It is a mass ritual as well as an action beyond death. The LTTE suicide carders better known as Black Tigers (or in Tamil: Karum Puligal ) are psychologically motivated to kill and get killed.

The selection of a member for a suicide mission is a complex process. They are handled and trained by experienced personnel. There are number of issues that have to be taken in to consideration before the selection. The selected member’s loyalty to the organization, psychological makeup, group identity, suicidal ideation etc needs to be analyzed. Then the human bombs under go institutionalized indoctrination and systematic injection of odium with adoration of death as well as scrupulous physical training. The intense indoctrination leads to blind obedience. Although the human bomb is aware of his/her impending death they are psychologically and physically geared up to full fill the task. After vigorous psychological an physical training the suicide bombers have last supper with the LTTE chief Prabhakaran before setting out on the mission.
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Kunta Kinte to Barak Obama

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge

Alex Haley the Pulitzer Prize winning author best known for his outstanding historical novel Roots tells the story of 39 million Americans of African descent. Kunta Kinte who was the central character of his 1976 book believed to be born in 1750 in Gambia West Africa and caught by a slave trader when Kunta Kinte was just 17 years old. He was taken to America (Maryland) by the ship Lord Ligonier in 1767. Worked as a slave undergoing many inhuman experiences Kunta Kinte died in 1810 without seeing freedom. Kunta’s generation lived in America until they searched for a new identity and freedom.

The American author Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin which was published in 1852 had profound effects on the attitude towards slavery in the United States. Many moderate Americans felt that the slavery was evil. The American Civil War erupted mainly due to the slavery issue. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1862 and declared the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America.

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Vision of Milinda Moragoda



Below is the platform on which I worked as a Member of Parliament and Minister:

I stand for a political system in Sri Lanka which is free of corruption and where politicians serve all the people rather than the other way around.

I want an end to the cycle of violence and hatred.

I am working for free and fair elections where the people of Sri Lanka can vote for the Party of their choice without fear of intimidation or violence.

I want to see our institutions free from political control. A free Police, Judiciary and Elections Commission which carry out their duties professionally and without favour.

The 21st Century will be based on a knowledge economy where human resources count. This gives Sri Lanka the opportunity for a fresh start. Through my job bank, English and IT classes, I am working to help our people. I am also working towards an education system – free for all – and where our children are given the skills to go out in to the world and compete with the best.

We have the best entrepreneurs and the best brains. I want Sri Lanka to open its doors to the world, let us compete with them and make ours a strong economy

I am working to build an infrastructure with good roads to every part of the island, a modern and efficient railway system and more ports from which we can export our produce.

I am working to free our businesses of red tape and to encourage inward investment, especially where it is in partnership with Sri Lankans.

I want to see an end to the war in the north and east. Neither Sinhalese nor Tamil benefit. I am working towards a peaceful settlement to this conflict.

I am working to strengthen our traditional industries such as farming, fishing, tea and garments. But we need to bring in the new industries of a ‘knowledge economy’. That means re-training our youth in computer skills. I want to see a more flexible and responsive higher education system where ‘distance learning’ is encouraged.

In such a strong economy there will always be people who cannot compete and will lose out. I want to provide a safety net for these people in the form of a quality social services system.

Women are the most dynamic part of our society and yet their contribution is rarely recognised. I will work to see that women are given the recognition and their rightful place in our society.


The Concept of Nirvana From a Psychological Point of View

Written and compiled by Dr. Ruwan M Jayatunge M.D. –

The concept of Nirvana is more than 2500 years old. Throughout the centuries various scholars and philosophers tried to explain this concept using their limited knowledge. In fact the concept of Nirvana is much more wide and difficult to explain in mundane terms. The Nirvana concept is often misunderstood and sometimes misused ( eg – Nirvana Rock Band, Nirvana Night Club) in the western world. Some Western scholars have tried to interpret it as a sensational feeling or like orgasm which was incorrect.

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