General Sarath Fonseka

General Sarath Chandralal Fonseka, immensely popular in Sri Lanka and world over, is the former commander of the Sri Lanka Army and the former Chief of Defense Staff of Sri Lanka. Acclaimed internationally as the chief architect who lead his fellow soldiers and officers to victory against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), he was the only serving officer to be promoted to a four star rank in the Sri Lanka Army.

Widely known among his peers in Sri Lanka and globally as a man of integrity, General Fonseka has an unblemished track record as a leader who stood up against corruption, special interests and lobbyists, within and outside the military. In the army he introduced merit over seniority, a first for the nation.

Sarath Fonseka does not hesitate to speak the truth, and throughout his career he has often challenged his friends and foes alike, whether it be his fellow officers or his superiors, and has gained a reputation as a man of honesty and humility.

More importantly, General Foneska is a man who has devoted his entire life to the service of his fellow citizens. Leaving aside his personal comfort and perks, General Foneska has demonstrated that he can, and will achieve what is good for his county and for his fellow citizens.

General Foneska’s experience in military matters made him a very popular figure among all Sri Lankan citizens. Many statesmen admired his courage, stance on military matters, and his astute policy insights into governance and strengthening democracy. As a moderate he has been able to achieve the unthinkable in Sri Lanka’s political history. Due to his determination to put his country before himself, he has been able to unite major political parties and ethnic communities to work with him to guide our beloved motherland to a prosperous future; a place where every citizen regardless of their ethnicity, religion and identity can live freely with pride and dignity.


Children Affected by the Eelam War

Dr. Ruwan M Jayatunge M.D.

The mental health of children is severely compromised by war and
consequent displacement. Nations have a duty under various UN
agreements to alleviate the effects of war on children’s mental health.

Professor William Yule

UNICEF recently estimated that over 80% of the victims of todays Warfare is women and children. Children who are a vulnerable group have suffered severe traumatic events during the Eelam War. Children of the North as well as of the South have experienced many anxiety related conditions as a result of the 25 year armed conflict in Sr Lanka. They are traumatized children and have various behavioral problems. They are at a high risk of developing numerous psychological ailments. As Ana Freud & Burlingham stated in 1943 Children are always the most vulnerable and generally more exposed citizens in countries where declared and undeclared wars rage.

There has been many research world wide that indicate children of the war zones undergo severe psychological trauma. The research in Gaza, Rwanda, Mozambique and Cambodia reveal children who were exposed to war and atrocities are at a high risk of developing PTSD. Abdel Aziz Mousa Thabet of Gaza Community Mental Health Programme and a Senior Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Birmingham did a study to estimate the rate of Posttraumatic stress reactions in Palestinian children who experienced war traumas, and to investigate the relationship between trauma-related factors and PTSD reactions. The sample consisted of 239 children of 6 to 11 years of age. 174 children (72.8%) reported PTSD reactions of at least mild intensity, while 98 (41%) reported moderate/severe PTSD reactions.

Organized and institutionalized violence like war can affect children in many ways. The effects of traumatic events on children are even greater when that trauma is due to modern warfare. In Sri Lanka a large number of children have been exposed to war trauma. There are numerous case examples which show the occurrence of anxiety reactions among the affected children.

Little K was nine years old when she became a victim of a cross fire between the armed forces and Tamil militants in the North. She sustained a gun shot injury to her left arm. She underwent a traumatic amputation of the left hand. The doctors were compelled to perform this operation in order to save her life. After the operation she was taken to an orphanage in Mulangavil in Killinochi district. She has fear feelings, night terror, bed wetting, hyperarousal and alienation. Traumatized war- zone children like little K carry the psychological scars throughout their lives.

Children who have experienced or been exposed to war trauma may have numerous symptoms including trauma based behavior. They often have anxieties and insecurities that can cause them to perceive every aspect of the world as being unsafe and frightening. The grow up with a generalized fear and hostility which affects their future lives. Trauma is often associated with intense feelings of humiliation, self-blame, shame and guilt, which result from the sense of powerlessness and may lead to a sense of alienation and avoidance. Therefore the initial trauma could become a vicious cycle.

Following case study gives a crude assumption of the longitudinal effects of psychological trauma on children which can affect their later lives.

Master S was 12 years old when 1983 communal riots erupted. His family was hiding in a nebhouring house to evade the mob attack. The attackers burnt their house while Master S and his kid sister hiding under a bed in their Sinhalese nebhour s house. He could hear the shoutings of the mob and the schreemings of the victims. Master S had fear feelings and he thought that the mob would kill him. These fears lasted for many years as he grew older.

Following day their kind nebhour with the help of the Police took them to the refugee camp at Bambalapitiya Kadirashan Kovil . Before going to the camp Master S had a quick glance at their house which was completely destroyed by the fire. He felt sorry for loosing his books and toys.

After spending several months in the refugee camp his father was managed to get asylum in West Germany. For many years S had a nostalgic feelings of his lost books and toys also fear that a group of people would come and attack him unexpectedly.

After coming to West Germany S underwent a prolonged cultural shock and frequently felt a misfit in the Western society. He became more isolated and neglected his studies. As a teenager he became more and more hostile and frequently had conflicts with the parents. After spending 12 years in West Germany S moved to Canada and got married. But he always felt the empty space and became emotionally numbed. On some occasions he could not control his temper and engaged in domestic violence. His violent outburst resulted an injury to his wife and S was charged by the Canadian Authorities. Today he is serving a prison term.

Children who had witnessed the war trauma and atrocities can have diminished cognitive abilities. They frequently have learning difficulties at school. Some have behavioral disorders. Most of them do not receive proper psychological therapies and rehabilitation. Jensen and Shaw (Jensen PS, Shaw J: Children as victims of war) indicated that there is conflicting and controversial literature on children’s reactions to war-related stress. They suggested that children’s cognitive immaturity and adaptive flexibility may mitigate the anticipated stressful effects.

As the researcher Osofsky, 1995 indicates the differential response to trauma depends, in part, on the child’s age and level of psychological maturity. Children vary in their reactions to traumatic events. Some suffer from fears and memories immediately after the event, which dissolve with time and emotional support. Other children are more severely affected by trauma and experience long-term problems.

Children of the war zone may exhibit regressive behaviors such as bed-wetting, thumb-sucking or fear of the dark. They may have increased difficulties separating from their parents. Also they can have attention problems and learning difficulties at school. Many of these affected children can have somatic complaints, irrational fears, sleep problems, nightmares, irritability and angry outbursts. They may appear to be depressed and more withdrawn.

Adolescent (ages 12 to 18) responses are more similar to adults and they are at increased risk for problems with substance abuse, peer problems and depression.

Child soldiers have been exposed to events beyond the normal boundaries of human experiences. This is a story of a child solder whose pseudonym is SE .

SE was 11 years old when he was forcefully recruited as a child soldier by the LTTE. During the training period he was beaten and threatened to be killed if he did not obey the orders. Once he saw a killing of a rival member by the LTTE. Along with other children he had to take part in a number of attacks against the Sri Lankan Army. They were called the members of the Baby Brigade. The Baby Brigade was a support team for the adult fighters. They never had the opportunity of going to school after they became child soldiers. Instead of books they carried AK 47 and grenades. Their childhood had been stolen.

Little SE witnessed a number of horrific events which changed his psychological makeup drastically. He was forced to observe torture, then forced to induce it on victims. Today SE is in a rehabilitation center but his horrendous psychological scars have not left him completely. He has intense rage , suicidal urge and alienation. Once a bright and innocent student now has become a victim of the Eelam War.

Exposure to war traumas can deleteriously affect children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development and pose significant problems into adulthood if left untreated. Exposure to war situations children lose predictability in their lives. They become far a way from daily routine and daily habits which provide security for them. It affects their psychosocial development negatively.

Master P was terrified when air attacks took place in Jaffna. During this attack his neighbor’s house was destroyed and some were critically injured. They were taken to the Jaffna hospital. Master P becomes anxious when he hears aircraft sounds. He has startling reactions, intrusive memories of the air attacks and sometimes nightmares.

Children’s well-being and development depend very much on the security of family relationships and a predictable environment. Miss L was 13 when the LTTE attacked their village in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. The attackers shot the adults and killed the children and women with knives. She was lucky to be alive. When the village was attacked she managed to escape with her uncle. But her parents and the younger brother got killed. Miss L couldn’t continue her education after the tragedy. She became more depressed and had constant feelings of being threatened, nightmares of the attack, and psycho somatic ailments.

During the Eelam war some of the Sinhalese and Tamil children witnessed the deaths of their parents or other family members. They have experienced loss of loved ones, loss of property etc. These children have undergone severe grief and some have developed pathological grief reactions. These children carry the psychological scars of these past traumatic events. Obviously the majority of them have not received adequate treatment and rehabilitation; they will become adults with the unhealed trauma. Their anger will be sublimated to the society and this is going to be a vicious cycle.

Master D (10 Y) was a bright student who suddenly showed learning difficulties and behavioral problems when his father died in the Rivirasa operation. He became aggressive and started bed wetting. He lost the interest in social activities showed positive features of Paternal Deprivation Syndrome. He was not a happy child after his fathers death.

Living with a father who is affected by the combat trauma is another predicament faced by some children. Little B was an eight year old boy who was beaten by his PTSD father an ex combatant with sudden rage. The boy was hospitalized and received treatment for his physical injuries.

Miss M (15Y) and master L (12Y) are sister and brother of the same family. Many days they had to spend the nights at neighbor’s house when their father became aggressive and went into tantrums. He is a combatant suffering from PTSD. When he experienced combat related flashbacks he became extremely violent. Their mother left the house following continuous physical aggression by the father.

In recent years, since 1990, nearly 49 wars have been waged, and 46 have been fought with small weapons. Over 40 million men, women, and children have been forced into refugee status due to war violence.A situation of war, frequently experienced by refugees, has a disorganizing and traumatizing effect on the entire family. The Eelam war caused displacements of civilians at large. Many are still living in refugee camps. Master M (9Y) and his family had to flee from his village with the other neighbors when the LTTE ordered the Muslim people to leave the North. Their family came to Puttlam and lived in a small hut without basic facilities in Alankuda- Kalpitiya. Master M became more isolated and showed positive features of anxiety and depression. He was nostalgic about his native village in Mannar. His education was disrupted and today M works as Three Wheel driver in Puttalam town. M feels himself as an alien in Kalpitiya .He is addicted to cannabis and has no long term life plans.

During the Eelam War the LTTE launched a number of suicide bombings sometimes targeting civilians. Master N (15Y) was a psychological victim of the dreaded Central Bank Bombing by the LTTE. When the blast occurred they were in a motor car. They sustained minor injuries, but master L was psychologically shattered. He had fear feelings, startling reactions, intrusions, nightmares for nearly a year.

How to heal the wounds occurred due to the armed conflict ? These children need medication, psychotherapy, psycho social rehabilitation and long term monitoring. In Sri Lanka there is a big scarcity of experts in this area. Very often traumatized children grow without psychosocial support. Unhealed traumas affect their cognitive and personality development.

Time does not heal the trauma. Therefore active measures are highly needed. Social support should be given to the children who were exposed to war trauma. Children’s resiliency to traumatic events is influenced by the degree of social support and positive community influences (Garbarino et al., 1992).

To minimize the psychological damage the children need effective care. Parental support is highly essential to heal the emotional scars experienced by the war-zone children. As the experts point out children with adequate family cohesion manifest less stress in reaction to trauma and are better able to recover from the initial impact of the trauma.

Cultural factors and traditional healing systems play a vital role. Community ideology, beliefs and value systems contribute to resiliency by giving meaning to dangerous events, allowing children to identify with cultural values, and enabling children and adults to function under extreme conditions (Melville and Lykes, 1992). In treating war zone children family therapy, group therapy, Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) , art therapy, music therapy, EMDR and school and community interventions have been used. Also they are helped with coping skills.

War trauma in Sri Lanka has created a dilemma situation. A large number of children have been affected by the prolonged armed conflict in Sri Lanka. This has become one of the crucial problems that would affect our future. Consider a significant numbers our next generation are traumatized and unhealed. The vicious cycle of war will deal with them once they become adults. Therefore this fierce cycle has to be dealt with effectively and professinally.

(the author who was the Focal Point — Mental Health in Puttalam District at the Health Ministry now offering his services to a Canadian Community Services Association in Ontario gives a balanced and unbias view of War Trauma and how it affected Sri Lanka Children )

Sexual Assault and Rape in the U.S. Military

“in spite of my most diligent efforts, there would unquestionably be some raping.”

Gen George S Patton – US Army 1942

The U.N. Security Council, chaired by Hillary Clinton, as the United States holds the revolving presidency, unanimously passed a resolution in a bid to stop sexual violence during conflicts and to end impunity, Hillary Clinton remarked that rape was used as a weapon in the Sri Lanka during the armed conflict with the LTTE. As a matter of fact she has forgotten the sexual violence caused by the US Army since the WW 2. This article reveals some of the thought provoking factors related to Sexual Assault and Rape in the U.S. Military.

War and Sexual Violence

Although rape has been closely linked with the history of warfare and some view sexual violence as an inevitable concomitant of war in the present context it is a war crime. The term rape refers to forcible sexual intercourse with an unwilling partner. Rape involves varying degrees of physical and psychological trauma. Rape is extremely traumatizing. All rape victims suffer physical and psychological aftereffects. The persistent practice of rape in war is evocative of the misogyny of war as an extension of masculine hegemony.

US Army and the Sexual Violence During the World War 2

For World War II, comprehensive statistics of prosecutions of American military personnel are available for the European theater of operations. Those statistics indicate that rape was extensive. US servicemen were accused of raping French women and when the numbers were surging it alarmed the Overall Commander Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower and he issued a directive to U.S. Army commanders announcing his “grave concern,” and instructing that speedy and appropriate punishments be administered.

Rapes in Vietnam

In Vietnam, from 1 January 1965 to 31 January 1973, twenty army personnel and one air force man were convicted of rape, and fourteen army personnel were convicted of attempted rape or assault with intent to commit rape. In Vietnam (1970–73), one navy serviceman and thirteen Marine Corpsmen were convicted of rape. However, these conviction numbers in no way reflect the actual number of incidents. Among these atrocities most horrific incident occurred in August 1967. A 13-year-old Vietnamese child was raped by American MI interrogator of the Army’s 196th Infantry Brigade. The soldier was convicted only of indecent acts with a child and assault. He served seven months and sixteen days for his crime.

The Persian Gulf War

During Persian Gulf War twenty?four female American military personnel were subjected to rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault by American military men, according to official records. During the last Gulf war, 8% of women sent overseas were sexually assaulted or raped, according to a study by researchers for the Department of Veterans’ Affairs.

Rapes within the Establishment

According to Lucinda Marshall US feminine activist there were 2947 reports of sexual assaults in the military in 2006, an increase in reports of 24% over 2005. More recently, there have been the well-publicized cases of Lance Cpl Maria Lauterbach who was murdered after accusing another Marine of rape, and Jamie Leigh Jones who says that she was gang-raped while working for Halliburton/KBR in Iraq. Jones claims that after she reported her rape, the company put her in a shipping container and warned her that she would lose her job if she left Iraq for medical treatment. Beth Jameson, a major in the US army reserve, who was assigned to a large staging area in Kuwait. She was raped on March 20 2003, the first night of the war, in the shower block during an alert for a feared chemical attack.

More than 200,000 women now serve in the US military, with at least 15,000 stationed in Iraq. The US Miles Foundation had received credible reports of rape or sexual assault (in the period August 2002 to August 2003) from 243 women serving in the US military in Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain and Afghanistan. The data suggests that nearly 1,400 women reported being assaulted and raped by their fellow soldiers, in some cases by their commanding officers. The Pentagon has released new reports in which one-third of military women say they’ve been sexually harassed.

Torture of POWs by the Pvt Lynndie England of US Army

Lynndie England, a young female soldier from a poor town in West Virginia,became a notorious symbol of sexual violence. She was found guilty of sexually and psychologically abusing the POW s of Abu Ghraib prison.

Pvt Lynndie England was a United States Army reservist who served in the 372 nd Military Police Company. She was one of eleven military personnel convicted in 2005 by the Army courts martial in connection with the torture and prisoner abuse at the Abu Ghraib prison. In Baghdad during the occupation of Iraq.

The case of Abeer Qassim Hamza

14-year-old Abeer Qassim Hamza lived with her family a few miles north of the Iraqi town of Mahmoudiya. On the 12 th of March 2006 three US soldiers went drinking and then changed out of their uniforms in to dark clothes. They burst in to her house. According to the affidavit, Steven Green, a private in the US Army, took Abeer’s family -her mother, Fikhriya Taha; her father, Qassim Hamza; and her 5-year-old sister, Hadeel Qassim Hamza — into a bedroom and killed them. He came out, blood on his clothes, bragging about what he’d just done. Then he and another soldier took turns raping Abeer. When they were done, they shot and killed her. Then they set fire to her body.

Steven Green , former US Soldier was convicted of the rape and murder of 14-year-old Abeer al-Janabi and the killing of her mother, father and six-year-old sister in Baghdad in 2006. In his trial Steven Green said “ you all can act like I am a Psychopath or a sexual predator or whatever….But if I had never gone to Iraq I would never have got caught up in anything like this. ”

Article By Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge M.D.

Anarkalli Aakarsha Jayatilaka


Anarkalli Aakarsha Jayatilaka (born July 11, 1987) is a Sri Lankan film and teledramaactress. She was crowned Miss Sri Lanka 2004 and represented Sri Lanka at the Miss World 2004 beauty pageant.

Jayatilaka’s first public opportunity to act came when Somaratne Dissanayake and Renuka Balasuriya, who directed and produced the teledrama Iti Pahan in 1995, were in search of a little girl who was fluent in English. In the drama, she performed the role of “Daisy Susan” beside renowned actress Vasanthi Chaturani.

After a nearly seven year hiatus, she returned to acting in 2003 when, at 15, she was cast in a lead role in Pissu Trible.Subsequently, she performed in several successful movies, and received acclaim in teledrama performances with her roles as “Inoka” in Sihinayak Paata Paatin and ‘Tanya’ in Santhuwaranaya.

Jayatilaka also works as a model, brand ambassador, presenter and often makes appearances in song visuals.

Anarkalli will contest for the Galle District for upcoming Southern Provincial Council Election, says United People’s Freedom Alliance(UPFA) General Secretary.

Akasa Kusum – Flowers Of The Sky



Sandhya Rani (Malini Fonseka) is an ageing film star who was once the darling of the silver screen. Having lost fame and fortune in a changing world, she now lives quietly in obscurity. She ekes out a living by renting out a room in her home to the film and television stars of today to satisfy their illicit sexual desires.

The popular young film star, Shalika (Dilhani Ekanayake), uses this room to carry on an affair with a young actor. When Shalika’s infidelity is unmasked by her husband, the scandal and its publicity forces Rani into the limelight again.

In the spotlight once again, Rani is suddenly forced to come to terms with a dark secret of her past – a secret she thought she had buried forever. As she confronts the demons of her past, she journeys in search of a truth she abandoned long ago…

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Reflecting Holocaust

Compiled by Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge

The Holocaust was the attempt to exterminate all the Jews in Europe. Racially based genocide plan killed more than 6 million Jews including two million children and 5 million others during 1941 to 1945. The Holocaust was not a randomly conducted atrocity which resulted on high emotions. It was systematically and meticulously planned for years. The Nazis built concentration camps for the purpose of forced labour and gassing victims.

Holocaust and the German People

Hitler came to power in 1933. He did not seize power. Hitler was elected by the votes of the German people. Many Germans at that era considered Hitler as the savior of the Germany. Hitler was obsessed with racial hygiene. His speeches became very popular and people responded positively to his theory of racial supremacy. Hitler’s Mein Kampf became one of the popular and admired books in Germany. Hitler believed that Aryan superiority was being threatened particularly by the Jewish race. Many of the German people grasped this idea without contesting. Hitler’s ability to arouse in his supporters emotions of anger and hate often resulted in their committing acts of violence. The Holocaust was the ultimate culmination of his violence, terror and brutality.

For 12 years Germany was ruled by the Nazi Party and opposition had no place to survive. No one was dare to challenge Hitler. A frightened society was forced to obey unimaginable orders. Hitler’s campaign of extermination of Jewish people was camouflaged from the German Public. The average Germans knew nothing about the horrors that took place in the Concentration camps. The NAZI Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels constantly reported that there were no mass extermination of Jews in Germany or in the occupied territories. Despite the governing Nazi iron fist German humanitarians like Oscar Schindler helped to save the lives of 12,000 Jews.


When Hitler came to power over 500,000 Jews lived in Germany. They were Germanized and had no major conflicts with the rest of the population. Anti Semitic propaganda of the new Nazi regime changed the racial harmony. On November 9, 1938 the Nazis unleashed a wave of attacks against the German Jews which was called Kristallnacht, (Christal Night) or the “the Night of Broken Glass.” The gangs of Nazi youth roamed through Jewish neighborhoods breaking windows of Jewish businesses and homes, burning synagogues and looting. Joseph Goebbels was the chief architect of the Kristallnacht, attack on the German Jews, which historians consider to be the commencement of the Nazi violence culminating in the Holocaust.

Final Solution

The Final Solution was Nazi Germany’s plan to exterminate Jews in Germany and in the occupied territories. Final Solution evolved between 1933 and 1941. Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Eichmann were the chief architects of the plan.

Adolf Eichmann who was responsible for Jewish affairs helped plan and implement the Holocaust. The Nazis decided to exterminate Europe’s Jewish population. Eichmann was appointed to coordinate the identification, assembly, and transportation of millions of Jews from occupied Europe to the Nazi death camps. Himmler the chief of SS was in charge of the mass destruction that killed 11 million people, including six million Jews.

Adolf Hitler publicly announced annihilation of the Jews in many occasions. When dealing with the Western powers Hitler threatened to use the Jews as hostages.

In Mein Kampf Hitler wrote “If at the beginning of, or during, the war 12,000 or 15,000 of these Jewish corrupters of the people had been plunged into an asphyxiating gas…the sacrifice of millions of soldiers would not have been in vain.”

Holocaust Action Plan

In the beginning of the systematic mass murder of Jews, Nazis used mobile killing squads. In September 1941, the Nazis began using gassing vans–trucks loaded with groups of people who were locked in and asphyxiated by carbon monoxide. These vans were used until the completion of the first death camp, Chelmno, which began operations in late 1941. Nazis established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries. In these extermination camps attempts were made to utilize the fat from the bodies of the victims in the commercial manufacture of soap.

Auschwitz was the biggest death camp. A large number of prisoners died as a result of starvation, executions, disease , torture, and criminal medical experiments. four million people were exterminated at Auschwitz.

In 1933, there were approximately 9 million Jews in Europe. By 1945, the Nazi’s had reduced that number to about 3 million. The conditions in the concentration camps were horrific. Colonel Gerald Draper, a British military officer recalled the state of the survivors at the time of liberation in the following account:

“Men and women clad in rags, and barely able to move from starvation and typhus lay in their straw bunks in every state of filth and degradation. The dead and dying could not be distinguished. Men and women collapsed as they walked and fell dead.”

Holocaust denial

Holocaust denial is an anti Semitic propaganda movements to develop to deny or minimize the established history of Nazi genocide against the Jews. The Jewish organizations blame Holocaust deniers to minimizing the human cost of Holocaust and deliberately manipulating historical evidence as part of an ideological and racist agenda. In several countries, including Israel, France, Germany and Austria, “Holocaust denial” is against the law. Once a Holocaust survivor expressed that a person who denies the Holocaust becomes part of the crime of the Holocaust itself.”

Psychological Impact of Holocaust

The Holocaust was both individual and collective to the Jewish people. The survivors faced catastrophic stress situations and had adjustment difficulties to integrate in to the society. They were overwhelmed by  feelings of fear, avoidance, guilt, pity and anxiety.  Many survivors showed   apathy and hopelessness. Their  second   generation  too were affected for some extent. The  collective trauma  associated with heightened sensitivity to anti-semitism and persecution.

Holocaust changed the face of the Jewish people and their political vision. The Holocaust of World War II united the Jewish Diaspora and focused international attention on the plight of persecuted Jews. There can be no doubt of the connection that exists between the Holocaust and the establishment of the State of Israel.

The conflict between Israel and Palatine has the historical roots as well as the effects of Holocaust. Some view Israel atrocity against the Palatine people as a form of a Freudian defense mechanism which is called projection or   attributing uncomfortable feelings to others. Today Gaza strip has become the   Guernica of the Spanish Civil War.

Holocaust and its Significance

The significance of the Holocaust is that it was the greatest act of hate and atrocity committed against humanity in the last thousand years or more. Holocaust shows the savage part of human nature which proved what human beings are capable of. Holocaust represent a human enigma. It taught a humankind a lesson  how  a bunch of extremists could tern a civilized society in to a killing ground.

Shakespearean Work and Common Mental Disorders


Every normal person, in fact, is only normal on the average. His ego approximates to that of the psychotic in some part or other and to a greater or lesser extent.

Sigmund Freud

Dr Ruwan m Jayatunge MD –

The eminent English poet and playwright William Shakespeare created many characters that appear to be afflicted by psychological and psychiatric disorders. Shakespeare had an exclusive ability to grasp the dynamics of the human mind and fathom the dysfunctions of the human psyche. Indeed Shakespeare was very comprehensible in his descriptions of various psychological and psychiatric symptoms. Shakespeare’s influence on psychopathology was immeasurable. Many of Shakespeare’s lead characters seem to be having mental disorders and even psychoses.

William Shakespeare’s work confers a wide range of human mental conditions including psychopathology. There are many Shakespearean characters show numerous criteria for mental disorders that is discussed in DSM 4(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association that covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults) and the ICD 10 (The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems classified by the WHO) Read More

Two Russian Romantic Poets who shared a Common Fate

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge MD –

Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov were Great Russian romantic poets who lived in the 19th century. They knew each other and adored each other’s work. Both were rebellious in nature. Alexander Pushkin was the pioneer of Russian literature. Among his major works Ruslan and Ludmila , Evgenii Onegin, and Boris Godunov can be considered as the greatest masterpiece of Russian literature. Although Pushkin was a genius in literature the Russian Czar did not tolerate his poems which carried the elements of protests. Pushkin was a daring activist who secretly involved with an underground revolutionary group and also publicly expressed his supported for the Decembrist uprising which demeaned feudal reforms. As result of his rebellious attitude Pushkin was banished from St Petersburg.

In 1827 he composed the ode titled The Poet

Until he hears Apollo’s call
To make a hallowed sacrifice,
A Poet lives in feeble thrall
To people’s empty vanities;
And silent is his sacred lyre,
His soul partakes of chilly sleep,
And of the world’s unworthy sons
He is, perhaps, the very least.

Pushkin knew the suffering of the peasants under the Czar’s regime. As a member of the upper Russian social class Pushkin was never fascinated by its glory. He had a mission in his life. Pushkin often used his writing to express the agony and suppression of the Russian people. Hence he was hated by the regime. But the general public recognized Pushkin as a great poet and respected him. Gradually he became the envy of the Royal Palace. Read More

Vladimir Vysotsky the Russian Bob Dylan

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge MD

I still recall the words of one of my teachers Mr. Vethali Ivanovich who introduced me to the songs of Vladimir Vysotsky in 1986. He said “if you want to learn the Russian soul listen to Vysotsky” A poet, songwriter and actor, Vladimir Vysotsky was the most famous Russian bard. He is adored by millions of Russians today.

Vladimir Vysotsky, who began performing in the 1960s, was quite critical of the regime, highlighting bureaucracy criticizing the unfair privileges of the elite and objecting the repression. His lyrics took position on the Soviet status quo. But he loved his country and he was a true Russian. Vladimir Vysotsky could be considered as the Russian Bob Dylan. He was the voice of the silent generation of the Soviet Union. Read More